Tag Archives: Stress

Are You Suffering From Symptoms Of Chronic Stress? Take the Stress Test!

Today’s guest post is from Kit Case of the Causey Law Firm in Washington State.

Signs of Chronic Stress:

Cognitive symptoms

  • Memory problems
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Poor judgment
  • Pessimistic approach or thoughts
  • Anxious or racing thoughts
  • Constant worrying

Emotional symptoms

  • Moodiness
  • Irritability or short temper
  • Agitation, inability to relax
  • Feeling overwhelmed
  • Sense of loneliness and isolation
  • Depression or general unhappiness

Physical symptoms

  • Aches and pains
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Nausea, dizziness
  • Chest pain, rapid heartbeat
  • Loss of sex drive
  • Frequent colds

Behavioral symptoms

  • Eating more or less
  • Sleeping too much or too little
  • Isolating oneself from others
  • Procrastinating or neglecting responsibilities
  • Using alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relax 

Take the Stress Test for Adults:

Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe in 1967, examined the medical records of over 5,000 medical patients as a way to determine whether stressful events might cause illnesses. Patients were asked to tally a list of 43 life events based on a relative score. A positive correlation was found between their life events and their illnesses.

Their results were published as the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), known more commonly as the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale.

To measure stress according to the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, the number of “Life Change Units” that apply to events in the past year of an individual’s life are added and the final score will give a rough estimate of how stress affects health.

Note: the table, below, is from the Wikipedia page on this subject.  For a fee of $5.00, you can go directly to Dr. Rahe’s website and obtain the full test materials as well as background information and details of this and other products and services available.

To measure stress according to the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, the number of “Life Change Units” that apply to events in the past year of an individual’s life are added and the final score will give a rough estimate of how stress affects health.

Life event Life change units
Death of a spouse 100
Divorce 73
Marital separation 65
Imprisonment 63
Death of a close family member 63
Personal injury or illness 53
Marriage 50
Dismissal from work 47
Marital reconciliation 45
Retirement 45
Change in health of family member 44
Pregnancy 40
Sexual difficulties 39
Gain a new family member 39
Business readjustment 39
Change in financial state 38
Death of a close friend 37
Change to different line of work 36
Change in frequency of arguments 35
Major mortgage 32
Foreclosure of mortgage or loan 30
Change in responsibilities at work 29
Child leaving home 29
Trouble with in-laws 29
Outstanding personal achievement 28
Spouse starts or stops work 26
Begin or end school 26
Change in living conditions 25
Revision of personal habits 24
Trouble with boss 23
Change in working hours or conditions 20
Change in residence 20
Change in schools 20
Change in recreation 19
Change in church activities 19
Change in social activities 18
Minor mortgage or loan 17
Change in sleeping habits 16
Change in number of family reunions 15
Change in eating habits 15
Vacation 13
Christmas 12
Minor violation of law 11

Score of 300+: At risk of illness.

Score of 150-299+: Risk of illness is moderate (reduced by 30% from the above risk).

Score 150-: Only have a slight risk of illness.

 

Recommended methods for relieving chronic stress include exercise (which can be modified to accommodate physical restrictions after an injury), meditation, music therapy, breathing techniques, and such simple things as companionship – from a pet, friend or family member.

 

Prior results do not guarantee outcomes.

If You’re Going Out To Eat Check Out “Behind The Kitchen Door”

Today’s guest post comes from Jon Gelman of New Jersey.

For many celebrating the holiday season is inggo out to eat for an enjoyable experience. Unknown to many restaurant patrons are the problems of restaurant workers and include:  low wages, occupational stress and lack of medical benefits that requires restaurant workers to go to work sick.

Behind The Kitchen Door exposes the working conditions in the restaurant industry.

 “How do restaurant workers live on some of the lowest wages in America? And how do poor working conditions—discriminatory labor practices, exploitation, and unsanitary kitchens—affect the meals that arrive at our restaurant tables? Saru Jayaraman, who launched a national restaurant workers organization after 9/11, sets out to answer these questions by following the lives of ten restaurant workers in cities across the country – New York City, Washington DC, Philadelphia, Houston, Los Angeles, Houston, Miami, Detroit, and New Orleans. Blending personal and investigative journalism, Jayaraman shows us that the quality of the food that arrives at our restaurant tables is not just a product of raw ingredients: it’s the product of the hands that chop, grill, sauté, and serve it, and the bodies to whom those hands belong.

“Behind the Kitchen Door “ is a groundbreaking exploration of the political, economic, and moral implications of eating out. What’s at stake when we choose a restaurant is not only our own health or “foodie” experience, but the health and well-being of the second-largest private sector workforce—the lives of 10 million people, many immigrants, many people of color, who bring passion, tenacity, and important insight into the American dining experience.

Download the 2012 National Diners Guide – See how your favorite restaurant ranks

Prior results do not guarantee outcomes.

Chronic Stress: The Cascade Effect (Part 2 Of The Biology of Stress)

Today’s second post in this series about the biology of stress comes to us from the Causey Law Firm in Washington. We encourage anyone who suffers from stress, whether it is acute or chronic, to seek professional assistance to manage the symptoms and, if possible, develop strategies to alleviate the underlying causes.

Stress is how the body reacts to a real or imagined stressor — a stimulus that causes stress. Acute stressors affect a bodily organ in the short term; chronic stressors over the longer term. Chronic stress is the state of prolonged tension from internal or external stressors which may cause various physical manifestations such as asthma, back pain, arrhythmias, fatigue, headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcers, and suppression of the immune system. Chronic stress takes a more significant toll on the body than acute stress. It can raise blood pressure, increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, and induce symptoms of anxiety and depression.

The Three Stages of Stress – From Acute to Chronic

  • Alarm: In this first stage, when the threat or stressor is first identified or realized, the body’s stress response is in a state of alarm. During this stage, adrenaline is produced in order to bring about the flight-or-fight response, causing sweating, raised heart rate, etc. The body’s resistance to the stressor drops temporarily below the normal range and some level of shock may be experienced. There is also some activation of the HPA Axis, producing cortisol, as discussed in our last post.
  • Resistance: If the stressor persists, the body must find some means of coping with the stress. Although it begins to try to adapt to the strains or demands of the environment, the body cannot keep this up indefinitely, so its resources are gradually depleted.  As it attempts to cope with the condition that is causing the stress, the mind may try to focus on the problem, which can actually exaggerate the awareness of the problem and make it seem difficult to overcome.
  • Exhaustion: third stage. At this point, all of the body’s resources are eventually depleted and the body is unable to maintain normal function. The initial symptoms may reappear (sweating, raised heart rate, etc.). Long-term damage may result, as the body’s immune system becomes exhausted, and bodily functions become impaired. The result can manifest itself in obvious illnesses such as ulcers, depression, diabetes, digestive system problems or cardiovascular problems.  It can also manifest as a chronic pain syndrome, guarding/avoidance behavior, and/or sleep disturbance.  Hopelessness can set in.

Chronic Stress and Cortisol

When the body’s HPA-axis cannot overcome a challenge and/or is chronically exposed to a threat, this system becomes overtaxed and can be harmful to the body and brain. An increased level of cortisol is one of the most dangerous outcomes of chronic stress.

Cortisol is an important hormone in the body, secreted by the adrenal glands and involved in some of the following functions: proper glucose metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, insulin release for blood sugar maintenance, immune function and inflammatory response. Normally, cortisol is present in the body at higher levels in the morning and is at its lowest level at night. Although stress is not the only reason that cortisol is secreted into the bloodstream, it has been termed “the stress hormone” because it’s also secreted in higher levels during the body’s ‘fight or flight’ response to stress, and is responsible for several stress-related changes in the body. Small increases of cortisol have some positive effects: a quick burst of energy for survival reasons, heightened memory functions, a burst of increased immunity, lower sensitivity to pain, and helping to maintain homeostasis in the body.

People are biologically ‘wired’ to react differently to stress.

While cortisol is an important part of the body’s response to stress, it is important that the body’s relaxation response be activated so the body’s functions can return to normal following a stressful event. Unfortunately, in our current high-stress culture, the body’s stress response is activated so often that the body doesn’t always have a chance to return to normal, resulting in a state of chronic stress, thus producing high chronic cortisol levels.

Higher and more prolonged levels of cortisol in the bloodstream like those in chronic stress have been shown to have negative effects, such as:

  • Impaired cognitive performance (loss or poor concentration, inability to complete tasks or heightened confusion in mildly stressful situations
  • Suppressed thyroid function
  • Blood sugar imbalances such as hyperglycemia
  • Decreased bone density
  • Decrease in muscle tissue
  • Higher blood pressure
  • Lowered immunity and inflammatory responses in the body, slowed wound healing, and other health consequences
  • Increased abdominal fat, which is associated with a greater amount of health problems than fat deposited in other areas of the body

When people feel stressed, stress hormones can be over-secreted, dramatically affecting the brain. Cortisol also plays a large part in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and memory. In a 2002 article in Biological Psychiatry regarding cortisol, PTSD and memory1, cortisol was noted to work with epinephrine (adrenaline) to create memories of short-term emotional events.  This effect may serve as a means to help a person remember what situations to avoid in the future. However, long-term exposure to cortisol damages cells in the hippocampus and can create impaired learning ability. It has been shown that cortisol inhibits memory retrieval of already stored information.

Cortisol secretion varies among individuals. People are biologically ‘wired’ to react differently to stress. One person may secrete higher levels of cortisol than another in the same situation. Studies have shown that people who secrete higher levels of cortisol in response to stress also tend to eat more food, and food that is higher in carbohydrates, than people who secrete less cortisol.

1“Depression. What happens in the brain?” Biological Psychiatry, 2002

Prior results do not guarantee outcomes.

Mental Injuries in Workers’ Compensation

Today we’re featuring another guest post by our colleague Tom Domer of Wisconsin. Here Tom shares the legal tests that establish whether damages for mental injury will be awarded. For mental injuries following a physical injury, the standard is “Is the mental disability… related to the work injury?” For cases that don’t involve a physical injury, some states require that the stress that triggered the mental injury be extraordinary “beyond those stresses than the day to day emotional strain and tension which all employees must experience.” While these criteria can be difficult to meet, mental injuries are real and can be as debilitating as physical ones.

From time to time, headline stories appear in the national news about workers claiming compensation benefits for “mental stress” injuries.  Continue reading

Prior results do not guarantee outcomes.